Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence

March 24th, 2008 by Jashodhara Purkayastha

Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence

Howard Gardener of Harvard University has propounded a unique theory of intelligence known as theory of Multiple intelligence. Elaborating his pluralistic view of intelligence, he concluded that there are many independent types of Intelligence.


Linguistic Intelligence – The ability to use words and language which is highly developed auditory skill. These learners have highly developed auditory skills and often think in words. They like reading, playing, word games, making up poetry or stories. They learn through  computers, games, multimedia, books, tape recorders, and lecture. This type of intelligence is mostly visible in poets, writers, lawyers, lecturers, journalists and lyricists

Logical / Mathematical Intelligence – This type of intelligence is concerned with numbers. They manipulate the environment to experiment in a controlled way. They are skilled in reasoning and problem solving. They think conceptually, abstractly and are able to see and explore patterns and relationships. They like to experiment, solve puzzles, play with numbers. They can be taught through logic games, investigations, and mysteries. They need to learn and form concepts before they can deal with details. Mathematician philosophers, physicists, engineers, computer personnel have this intelligence.

Spatial intelligence – This type of intelligence is concerned with the abilities, talents and skill involving the representation and manipulation of spatial configuration and relation ship.They like to draw, do jigsaw puzzles, read maps, and daydream. They can be taught through drawings, verbal and physical imagery. Inventor, architect, mechanics, artists, decorators are found to rely upon spatial intelligent.

Musical Intelligence – They can think in music, rhythm and pattern. They also sing, hum, whistle to themselves. They perform and appreciate music and lead in songs.They love music, but they are also sensitive to sounds in their environments. They may study better with music in the background. They can be taught by turning lessons into lyrics, speaking rhythmically, and tapping out time. Tools include musical instruments, music, radio, stereo, CD-ROM, multimedia.

They are sensitive to environmental sound it is found in musician, composer, orchestra bands, theatre etc.

Kinaesthetic Intelligence – Knowledge through body sensation. They have excellent motor coordination. They need to move around by involving ones body and its various parts skilfully. Professionals like dancers, athletes, actors, models, clown etc come in this category.

Intra-personal intelligence – This type enables him to know his self. It includes knowledge and understanding of ones own cognitive strength, style and mental functioning and feelings. Philosophers, Theorist, yogis, saints, self-employed have this type of intelligence.

Inter-personal intelligence – Counsellors, business man, politician, community workers, religious leader have this type of intelligence. They are effective communicators and smart having many friends. They understand people and keep good relation by communicating with them.

Naturalistic intelligence – Ability to recognise and classify plants, minerals and animals. They can discriminate among living things, sensitive to features of the natural world. Farmers, botanist, biologists, chef etc are having this intelligence.

Existentialistic Intelligence – they are concerned with cosmic or existential issues. They seek experiences in religious mythology, inclination towards life and death. They are able to relate themselves with cosmos or the infinite. They are interested in ultimate realities. Aristotle, Einstein, Plato, Socrates, all Indian yogis and saints like Rishi Aurobindo, Vivekananda, Yogananda, Ramathirtha etc are having this kind of intelligence.

In this way, Gardener’s theory of multiple intelligence provides a broad and comprehensive view of human abilities. All these intelligence are to be developed independently.

Posted in Psychology | 3 Comments »

3 Responses

  1. Marnil Y. Rosaroso Says:

    Nice data, i really need it in my lectures.

  2. Daphne unger Says:

    Useful data,will be of great importance in the Parent Teachers meeting to be conducted

  3. jashodhara Says:

    @ Marnil &Daphne–I’m very happy to know that this is important & useful for lectures & Parent Teachers meeting.

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