March 14th, 2008 by Jashodhara Purkayastha



Mainstreaming is an approach that emphasises integration and as such it is the antithesis of earlier institutionalisation movement with emphasised segregation.

Mainstreaming is relatively recent development in special education:

1.        Mainstreaming is the education of mild handicapped children in the regular classroom. It is a concept that is compatible with the least restrictive environment. All the handicapped can be educated with their normal peers whenever possible.  It is based on the philosophy of equal educational opportunity that is implemented through individual planning to promote appropriate learning achievement and social normalisation.

2.       Mainstreaming doesn’t mean placement of all exceptional students in regular classes. The key to mainstreaming is placement of the mildly retarded in the regular classroom environment.

3.       Mainstreaming is a particular orientation towards supplying special education to the majority of the mildly retarded in particular and the handicapped in general.

4.       Visual Auditory Kinaesthetic Tactual (VAKT ) multisensory become widespread.

5.       Mainstreaming is nowadays not only a slogan, but also a workable process. It means an individualised education programme.



1)       Academic achievement.

2)       Social skills.

3)       Economic sufficiency through development of vocational  skills within the limits of the special children’s educability.



Integration is another expression used to mean mainstreaming. Integration cannot be reduced simply to an educational issue or an employment issue.

An approach to integration that takes the individual needs of the special child into full consideration may result in one or more.

1)       Physical integration: Planning   for regular programme and location.

2)       Social integration: Planning for personal interactions between students who have handicaps & those who do not.

3)       Academic integration: planning   to ensure students to use  school resources.

4)       Societal integration: Planning designed to enable the handicapped to spend leisure time with other fellow (non handicapped )

Integration means——

1)       Providing special services within the regular schools.

2)       Supporting regular teachers & administrator.

3)       Having students with disabilities follow the same schedule as non disabled students.

4)       Involving disabled students in academic classes & extra curricular activities.

5)       Arranging to use library, play ground & other facilities for disabled children.

6)       Encouraging   helper & buddy relationship between disabled & non- disabled children.

7)       Arranging to receive the education in regular community environment by disabled children.

8)       Teaching all children to understand & accept human difference.

9)       Taking parents concern seriously.

10)   Providing an appropriate individualized programme.


How to achieve

Ten different areas for effective mainstreaming & integration

1) Curriculum

2) Teaching basic skills

3) Class management

4) Professional consultation & communication

5) Teacher parents, teacher students relationship

6) Students  student relationship

7) Exceptional conditions

8) Referral

9) Individual teaching

10) Professional value


Purpose of integration

1)       No segregation for mildly disabled.

2)       Supportive system &services for psychological, recreational & vocational skill development

3)       Instructional procedures are boring as there is lack of special teaching technique.

4)       Existing negative attitude towards mildly disabled children

5)       Parental involvement& community participation in the total scheme of integrated education is important.

6)       Integrated schools should use sensory stimulation.

7)       After diagnosis, mildly disabled child can be placed in the normal school.

8)       Major attention is required.

9)       Preparation for early intervention programme& its quality.

10)   Behaviour management resource specialists should be used &resource room installed.

11)   Sharing with normal children is better than putting them in isolation.

Posted in Psychology | No Comments »

Leave a Comment

Mail:   (will not be published)

Please note: Comment moderation is enabled and may delay your comment. There is no need to resubmit your comment.