Integrated Personality

March 27th, 2008 by Jashodhara Purkayastha

Well integrated personality is the sum total of harmonious expression of:

  1. Physical self
  2. Energy self
  3. Intellectual self
  4. Mental self
  5. Blissful self

Physical self relates to our senses. Proper nourishment and growth of physical faculties is essential by way ofbalanced diet, recreation, music, care and concern from near & dear ones. Mind & body are related. A simple pat on the back for any achievement in life goes a long way to build up confidence. However discretion and discrimination are the key words in this regard, otherwise, there will be chances that senses would create havoc by way of infatuation and attachment to the sense objects.

Energy self is subtler than the first. It relates to metabolism and gross manifestation of energy (PRANA) e.g breathing. The control of prana is achieved by control ofanger, anxiety, and restlessness.

Intellectual self concern with discriminative power and knowledge, what we call Buddhi. In addition to sincere and formal studies reading of books like biographies of noble person.

Mental self is related to stress and psychology. Here selflessness, control, concentration, and calmness play an essential role.

Anandamaya Kosh or Blissful self is the function of state of being. It calls for remaining calm and unaffected nay to remain happy, free from worldly affair, in calamities and disasters, in suffering or loss, in failure and success.

To attain these five fold method, we follow:

  1. Self effort
  2. Self control
  3. Self reliance
  4. Self sacrifice
  5. Self knowledge

Swami Vivekananda says that IP is but the aggregate of our tendencies, the sum total of the bent of mind. We are what our thoughts made us. Thoughts travel far & fast. So take care of thoughts. If good impression prevails, the IP becomes good. An integrated person develops upward. We are influenced by:

Influence of parents: The personality begins to get formed in prenatal stage. Parents knowingly or unknowingly mould the personality ofthe child by their thoughts and actions. When the child is little big, he watches and imitates his parents. Mother influences in moulding the character of a child. Saints are generally born of men and women of great character. For building IP earlier, it is better we catch our children early.

Influence of teacher: Teachers influence in moulding the IP of children. If parents and teachers are confirmed noble character, their wards will mostly be of same character. That is why, education in olden days was in the hand of ideal man and sages.

Influence of environment: Besides parents and teachers, there is a powerful influence of social environment. This can be creatively handled for building character only through homes. Ethical conducts have to be cultivated from childhood which takes care of the human personality and its fulfillment. Success lies in the development of will power, character, concentration, detachment, righteousness, ethics and attainment of spiritual illumination.

Integrated Personality

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Defining Psychology & Its Nature

March 26th, 2008 by Jashodhara Purkayastha

The word Psychology has been defined in different ways. The term is derived from the words Psyche, which means soul and logos means discourse (science).

Thus psychology means the science of soul – Aristotle defines soul as an entity which realizes an idea not separable from body and its abode in the human heart. Many psychologist feel that it (soul) does not have physical existence and  can’t be seen or heard. The nature of soul cannot be defined . Hence the meaning of soul was rejected.

Psychology as the Science of MIND:
The German philosopher criticized psychology as a science of soul and said that it is the study of mind. The term was considered better as it included mental phenomena such as perceiving, reasoning etc  but some psychologists said that mind is not an organ of the body like the brain or the heart.
Charak, the court physician of King Kanishka considered human heart to be the seat of the human mind. The word mind is not clear enough to accept as science.

Psychology as the Science of CONSCIOUSNESS:
Some psychologists defined psychology as the science of consciousness. The term consciousness means awareness. Consciousness makes us more aware of the situation or things around us. Later on Freid put forward the concept of unconsciousness. He said there are two minds, one conscious and the other is unconscious. If this definition is accepted then the unaware mind is neglected. So this definition has been rejected.

Psychology as the Science of BEHAVIOR:
The latest and the modern concept of psychology is the term behavior. It is the science of human and animal behavior. The term behavior is used in a very broad sense. It expresses the entire life of an individual’s behavior including all activities like walking, playing, digging (motor) and other activities like perceiving, imagining, remembering, thinking or reasoning. It includes emotional activities like happiness, sadness, anger etc. Behavior of the learner is understood in the environment or the situation. Behavior depends on the stimulus response. E.g. A pin prick makes us jump. The pin prick is the stimulus and jumping is the response. Thus, behavior includes the behavior of animals as well as human beings and behavior of the normal as well as abnormal human beings.

Nature of Psychology:
It is an accepted reality that the nature of psychology is quite scientific. This fact has been properly realized by many psychologists and thinkers. In general, we may term a subject scientific if it:

  1. Possess a body of facts which can be supported through universal laws and principles.
  2. Emphasizes the search for truth.
  3. Doesn’t believe in hearsay, stereotypes or superstition.
  4. Believes in cause and effect relationship.
  5. Adopts the method of objectives, investigations, systematic and controlled observation and a scientific approach.
  6. Stands for the generalization, verification, modification of the observed result or deduced phenomenon.
  7. Helps in predicting future development.
  8. Is able to turn its theory into practice by having an applied aspect.
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Educational Psychology

March 26th, 2008 by Jashodhara Purkayastha

Educational Psychology is one of the branches of applied psychology. It is an attempt to apply the knowledge of psychology in the field of education. The term ‘Educational Psychology’ consists of two words – Education and Psychology. Education is concerned with teaching, training, instruction where as psychology deals with the behavior of men and animals.

According to Crow & Crow – “Educational psychology describes and explains the learning experiences of an individual from birth through old age.”

Skinner defines it as: “Educational psychology is that branch of psychology which deals with teaching and learning. ”

Characteristics of Educational Psychology:-

  1. Educational psychology is the application of psychological concepts to educative process.
  2. It is combination of two disciplines – education and psychology to assist each other.
  3. It is the result of interdisciplinary approach between education and psychology.
  4. It helps in making teaching – learning process more effective.
  5. It provides the methods and techniques which can be used at different stages of growth and development.
  6. It helps in relating teaching activities to learning situations.
  7. It brings out desirable change in behaviour of students.
  8. It enables teachers to understand the needs of students.
  9. It makes teaching – learning more purposive.
  10. It helps in understanding, predicting and directing to achieve the goals of life.

Nature of Educational Psychology:-

We can summaries the nature of Educational Psychology in the following way:

  1. Educational psychology is an applied branch of psychology. By applying it, it tries to study the behaviour and experiences of the pupils.
  2. Educational psychology limits it in dealing with the behaviour of the pupil in relation to educational environment.
  3. It gives the necessary knowledge and skill for giving education to the pupils in a satisfactory way.
  4. It is not a normative science, as it is not concerned with the values of Education and does not concern with “What ought to be. It is an applied positive science.”
  5. Educational Psychology is not a perfect science because  it cannot claim objectivity, exactness, validity as claimed by natural science or applied science (Medicine, Engineering).
  6. It employs scientific method and adopts scientific approach to study the behaviour of an individual in educational environment.

Scope of Educational Psycholoqy:

Educational psychology should limit itself within the four walls of the teaching – learning process and educational environment. Educational psychology covered five major areas:

  1. Individual differences of learners–
    1. Growth and development of children
    2. Personality, intelligence and creativity
    3. MentalHealth
    4. Exceptional Children
    5. Needs and aspiration
  2. Teaching – Learning process—
    1. Psychology  teaching – learning process
    2. Relationship of teaching and learning
    3. Learning theories for teachers
    4. Concept of learning
    5. Factor effecting learning, transfer of learning
    6. Learning problem and guidance
    7. Role of a teacher in learning process
  3. Measuring learning outcomes—
    1. Concept of measurement and evaluation
    2. Method of measurement
    3. Measurement of individual difference
    4. Analysing data, using statistical teaching
  4. The teaching situation—-
    1. Environmental factor
    2. Learning situation
    3. Classroom climate
    4. Group dynamics techniques
    5. Evaluation technique, guidance and counselling
  5. Evaluation of Learning Performance—–
    1. Use of statistical method
    2. conducting research on educational problems

Limitation:

Educational psychology provides the teacher information on certain problems regarding the development of children and his effectiveness will depend on his experience and approach towards educational problem. Educational psychology deals with the behaviour of the child. It gives guidelines only. Its generalisation are not as exact as the generalisation of natural sciences.

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Educational Psychology To Solve Classroom Problems

March 25th, 2008 by Jashodhara Purkayastha

How would a teacher use the knowledge of educational psychology to solve classroom problem?

Psychology is the study of behaviour. Educational psychology is an attempt to apply the psychological principles, theories & techniques to human behaviour in educational situation.

The knowledge of educational psychology is very useful & indispensable for the teacher due to the following criteria:

  1. Knowledge of innate nature: The child has some qualities, instinct, urges etc. These natures  force the child to find out his /her inner talent  and behave in the class in different way. Educational psychology helps to modify this behaviour in a positive manner.
  2. Knowledge of individual difference: Every child is different from each other with respect to abilities achievement, capabilities etc. The knowledge of educational psychology helps the teacher to bring out the latent talent of a child.
  3. Knowledge of behaviour: Child is born with some innate behaviour. Educational psychology helps the teacher to modify the behaviour of the child.e.g Stubbornness,annoyance,anxiety etc.
  4. Knowledge of Mental health: Educational psychology helps the teacher to maintain the health of student by contacting their parents occasionally. Personality develops if the mental health of a child is  taken care of.
  5. Knowledge of Learning: Educational psychology helps the teacher to understand the various aspects of learning such as Method, Process, Laws of learning etc. Thus it helps to modify the teaching procedure for making learning successful.
  6. Knowledge of one’s own job: Educational psychology helps the teacher to know and understand the importance of one’s own job, responsibilities with efficiency.Teacher should not show their stress in front of children.
  7. Knowledge of guidance: Educational psychology helps the teacher to understand the child’s mind and guide the child whenever necessary.
  8. Improvement in teaching-taught relationship: It improves the teaching-taught relationship by knowing the interest ,aptitude and potential of the child.
  9. Improvement in curriculum: Educational psychology helps to develop the curriculum which revolves round the student like concentric approach/topical approach of the subject which will be related to the child’s real-life situation. Thus, educational psychology helps to create child-centered curriculum.
  10. Improvement in teaching method: It helps to introduce various teaching methods to develop the interest of the child. Teacher can thus use different teaching aids to improve teaching and create curiosity in the child.
  11. Improvement in discipline: Discipline can not be forced.Educational psychology helps to understand the mind of the child and helps to maintain self-discipline.
  12. Experimentation and research: Educational psychology brings out certain experiments and research in the field of education and bringing the new teaching methods to improve the teaching-learning process.
  13. Measurement and evaluation: It helps the teacher to measure the various achievement of the child by evaluating through different skills.

Thus we see that educational psychology is very useful to the teacher to modify the teaching and handle classroom problems efficiently.

Also read Psychology with stories and Analysis : http://pothi.com/pothi/book/yashodhara-you-can-know-your-psyche

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Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence

March 24th, 2008 by Jashodhara Purkayastha

Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence

Howard Gardener of Harvard University has propounded a unique theory of intelligence known as theory of Multiple intelligence. Elaborating his pluralistic view of intelligence, he concluded that there are many independent types of Intelligence.

gardners-theory.JPG

Linguistic Intelligence – The ability to use words and language which is highly developed auditory skill. These learners have highly developed auditory skills and often think in words. They like reading, playing, word games, making up poetry or stories. They learn through  computers, games, multimedia, books, tape recorders, and lecture. This type of intelligence is mostly visible in poets, writers, lawyers, lecturers, journalists and lyricists

Logical / Mathematical Intelligence – This type of intelligence is concerned with numbers. They manipulate the environment to experiment in a controlled way. They are skilled in reasoning and problem solving. They think conceptually, abstractly and are able to see and explore patterns and relationships. They like to experiment, solve puzzles, play with numbers. They can be taught through logic games, investigations, and mysteries. They need to learn and form concepts before they can deal with details. Mathematician philosophers, physicists, engineers, computer personnel have this intelligence.

Spatial intelligence – This type of intelligence is concerned with the abilities, talents and skill involving the representation and manipulation of spatial configuration and relation ship.They like to draw, do jigsaw puzzles, read maps, and daydream. They can be taught through drawings, verbal and physical imagery. Inventor, architect, mechanics, artists, decorators are found to rely upon spatial intelligent.

Musical Intelligence – They can think in music, rhythm and pattern. They also sing, hum, whistle to themselves. They perform and appreciate music and lead in songs.They love music, but they are also sensitive to sounds in their environments. They may study better with music in the background. They can be taught by turning lessons into lyrics, speaking rhythmically, and tapping out time. Tools include musical instruments, music, radio, stereo, CD-ROM, multimedia.

They are sensitive to environmental sound it is found in musician, composer, orchestra bands, theatre etc.

Kinaesthetic Intelligence – Knowledge through body sensation. They have excellent motor coordination. They need to move around by involving ones body and its various parts skilfully. Professionals like dancers, athletes, actors, models, clown etc come in this category.

Intra-personal intelligence – This type enables him to know his self. It includes knowledge and understanding of ones own cognitive strength, style and mental functioning and feelings. Philosophers, Theorist, yogis, saints, self-employed have this type of intelligence.

Inter-personal intelligence – Counsellors, business man, politician, community workers, religious leader have this type of intelligence. They are effective communicators and smart having many friends. They understand people and keep good relation by communicating with them.

Naturalistic intelligence – Ability to recognise and classify plants, minerals and animals. They can discriminate among living things, sensitive to features of the natural world. Farmers, botanist, biologists, chef etc are having this intelligence.

Existentialistic Intelligence – they are concerned with cosmic or existential issues. They seek experiences in religious mythology, inclination towards life and death. They are able to relate themselves with cosmos or the infinite. They are interested in ultimate realities. Aristotle, Einstein, Plato, Socrates, all Indian yogis and saints like Rishi Aurobindo, Vivekananda, Yogananda, Ramathirtha etc are having this kind of intelligence.

In this way, Gardener’s theory of multiple intelligence provides a broad and comprehensive view of human abilities. All these intelligence are to be developed independently.

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Emotional intelligence

March 14th, 2008 by Jashodhara Purkayastha

Definition

Emotional intelligence is a combination of competencies. These skills contribute to a person’s ability to manage and monitor his or her own emotions, to correctly gauge the emotional state of others and to influence opinions.

Exactly what is Emotional Intelligence? The term encompasses the following five characteristics and abilities:

  1. Self-awareness–knowing your emotions, recognizing feelings as they occur, and discriminating between them
  2. Mood management–handling feelings so they’re relevant to the current situation and you react appropriately
  3. Self-motivation–“gathering up” your feelings and directing yourself towards a goal, despite self-doubt, inertia, and impulsiveness
  4. Empathy–recognizing feelings in others and tuning into their verbal and nonverbal cues
  5. Managing relationships–handling interpersonal interaction, conflict resolution, and negotiations

Why Do We Need Emotional Intelligence?
Research in brain-based learning suggests that emotional health is fundamental to effective learning. According to a report from the National Center for Clinical Infant Programs, the most critical element for a student’s success in school is an understanding of how to learn. (Emotional Intelligence, p. 193.) The key ingredients for this understanding are:

1.) Confidence 5.) Relatedness

2.) Curiosity 6.) Capacity to communicate

3.) Intentionality 7.) Ability to cooperate

4.) Self-control

These traits are all aspects of Emotional Intelligence. Basically, a student who learns to learn is much more apt to succeed. Emotional Intelligence has proven a better predictor of future success than traditional methods like the GPA, IQ, and standardized test scores.

Hence, the great interest in Emotional Intelligence on the part of corporations, universities, and schools nationwide. The idea of Emotional Intelligence has inspired research and curriculum development throughout these facilities. Researchers have concluded that people who manage their own feelings well and deal effectively with others are more likely to live content lives. Plus, happy people are more apt to retain information and do so more effectively than dissatisfied people.

Building one’s Emotional Intelligence has a lifelong impact. Many parents and educators, alarmed by increasing levels of conflict in young schoolchildren–from low self-esteem to early drug and alcohol use to depression, are rushing to teach students the skills necessary for Emotional Intelligence. And in corporations, the inclusion of Emotional Intelligence in training programs has helped employees cooperate better and motivate more, thereby increasing productivity and profits.

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Mainstreaming

March 14th, 2008 by Jashodhara Purkayastha

Mainstreaming

                                                                 

Mainstreaming is an approach that emphasises integration and as such it is the antithesis of earlier institutionalisation movement with emphasised segregation.

Mainstreaming is relatively recent development in special education:

1.        Mainstreaming is the education of mild handicapped children in the regular classroom. It is a concept that is compatible with the least restrictive environment. All the handicapped can be educated with their normal peers whenever possible.  It is based on the philosophy of equal educational opportunity that is implemented through individual planning to promote appropriate learning achievement and social normalisation.

2.       Mainstreaming doesn’t mean placement of all exceptional students in regular classes. The key to mainstreaming is placement of the mildly retarded in the regular classroom environment.

3.       Mainstreaming is a particular orientation towards supplying special education to the majority of the mildly retarded in particular and the handicapped in general.

4.       Visual Auditory Kinaesthetic Tactual (VAKT ) multisensory become widespread.

5.       Mainstreaming is nowadays not only a slogan, but also a workable process. It means an individualised education programme.

 

Objectives:

1)       Academic achievement.

2)       Social skills.

3)       Economic sufficiency through development of vocational  skills within the limits of the special children’s educability.

 

Integration:

Integration is another expression used to mean mainstreaming. Integration cannot be reduced simply to an educational issue or an employment issue.

An approach to integration that takes the individual needs of the special child into full consideration may result in one or more.

1)       Physical integration: Planning   for regular programme and location.

2)       Social integration: Planning for personal interactions between students who have handicaps & those who do not.

3)       Academic integration: planning   to ensure students to use  school resources.

4)       Societal integration: Planning designed to enable the handicapped to spend leisure time with other fellow (non handicapped )

Integration means——

1)       Providing special services within the regular schools.

2)       Supporting regular teachers & administrator.

3)       Having students with disabilities follow the same schedule as non disabled students.

4)       Involving disabled students in academic classes & extra curricular activities.

5)       Arranging to use library, play ground & other facilities for disabled children.

6)       Encouraging   helper & buddy relationship between disabled & non- disabled children.

7)       Arranging to receive the education in regular community environment by disabled children.

8)       Teaching all children to understand & accept human difference.

9)       Taking parents concern seriously.

10)   Providing an appropriate individualized programme.

 

How to achieve

Ten different areas for effective mainstreaming & integration

1) Curriculum

2) Teaching basic skills

3) Class management

4) Professional consultation & communication

5) Teacher parents, teacher students relationship

6) Students  student relationship

7) Exceptional conditions

8) Referral

9) Individual teaching

10) Professional value

 

Purpose of integration

1)       No segregation for mildly disabled.

2)       Supportive system &services for psychological, recreational & vocational skill development

3)       Instructional procedures are boring as there is lack of special teaching technique.

4)       Existing negative attitude towards mildly disabled children

5)       Parental involvement& community participation in the total scheme of integrated education is important.

6)       Integrated schools should use sensory stimulation.

7)       After diagnosis, mildly disabled child can be placed in the normal school.

8)       Major attention is required.

9)       Preparation for early intervention programme& its quality.

10)   Behaviour management resource specialists should be used &resource room installed.

11)   Sharing with normal children is better than putting them in isolation.

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Piaget Cognitive Development

March 14th, 2008 by Jashodhara Purkayastha

Stages of Cognitive Development. Piaget identified four stages in cognitive development:

  1. Sensorimotor stage (Infancy). In this period (which has 6 stages), intelligence is demonstrated through motor activity without the use of symbols. Knowledge of the world is limited (but developing) because its based on physical interactions / experiences. Children acquire object permanence at about 7 months of age (memory). Physical development (mobility) allows the child to begin developing new intellectual abilities. Some symbollic (language) abilities are developed at the end of this stage.
  2. Pre-operational stage (Toddler and Early Childhood). In this period (which has two substages), intelligence is demonstrated through the use of symbols, language use matures, and memory and imagination are developed, but thinking is done in a nonlogical, nonreversable manner. Egocentric thinking predominates
  3. Concrete operational stage (Elementary and early adolescence). In this stage (characterized by 7 types of conservation: number, length, liquid, mass, weight, area, volume), intelligence is demonstarted through logical and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects. Operational thinking develops (mental actions that are reversible). Egocentric thought diminishes.
  4. Formal operational stage (Adolescence and adulthood). In this stage, intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. Early in the period there is a return to egocentric thought. Only 35% of high school graduates in industrialized countries obtain formal operations; many people do not think formally during adulthood.

Graph showing Piagetian Stages

http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/images/piagetal.gif

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